Duniart – Photography and Blog by Toine IJsseldijk

East Java

The Ijen volcano complex comprises a cluster of composite volcanoes in East Java. Noted for its blue fire, acidic crater lake, and labor-intensive sulfur mining, the complex lies within the Ijen caldera, which spans about 20 kilometers wide. The highest peak within this complex is the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano. The term “Gunung Merapi” translates to ‘mountain of fire’ in Indonesian. The Ijen Geopark was designated as part of UNESCO Global Geoparks in 2023.
West of Gunung Merapi lies the Ijen volcano, characterized by its one-kilometer-wide turquoise-colored acidic crater lake. This lake serves as the focal point for a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, where workers manually transport sulfur-laden baskets from the crater floor, out of the caldera.
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